Karakteristik dan Klinis Pasien Toksoplasmosis di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang Periode 2016 – 2020

Selfi Renita Rusjdi, Egi Defiska Mulya, Rahmatini Rahmatini

Abstract


Toksoplasmosis merupakan suatu penyakit yang disebabkan oleh parasit Toxoplasma gondii. Parasit ini mempunyai hospes definitif berupa hewan golongan felidae terutama kucing dan hospes perantara berupa manusia dan hewan berdarah panas. Infeksi parasit ini dapat terjadi secara vertikal yaitu dari ibu hamil dan menyebabkan terjadinya toksoplasmosis kongenital.  Transmisi horizontal parasit ini dapat terjadi dengan mengkonsumsi makanan dan minuman yang terkontaminasi ookista atau kista jaringan pada daging yang kurang matang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui karakteristik dan klinis pasien toksoplasmosis di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang periode 2016 - 2020. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif retrospektif. Sampel pada penelitian ini adalah pasien yang didiagnosis toksoplasmosis di  RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang periode Januari 2016  -  Desember 2020. Semua populasi dijadikan sampel yaitu sebanyak 27 sampel. Hasil: Pada penelitian ini didapatkan pasien toksoplasmosis terbanyak pada tahun 2017  sebanyak 17 orang (63,00%),  rentang usia terbanyak 26 - 45 tahun (51,85%) dan berjenis kelamin laki - laki (66,67%). Keluhan utama yang sering terjadi yaitu penurunan kesadaran (33,34%), gejala klinis yang sering terjadi yaitu kejang (16,27%). Klinis toksoplasmosis yang banyak yaitu toksoplasmosis serebri (66,67%). Faktor Komorbid toksoplasmosis terbanyak yaitu HIV (55,56%). Kesimpulan: Pada penelitian ini jumlah pasien didapatkan sebanyak 27 orang dan yang terbanyak tahun 2017, rentang usia terbanyak 26 - 45 tahun, keluhan utama terbanyak penurunan kesadaran, gejala klinis terbanyak kejang, klinis terbanyak toksoplasmosis serebri, dan faktor komorbid terbanyak HIV.

Kata kunci: faktor komorbid, gejala klinis, keluhan utama, klinis toksoplasmosis, toksoplasmosis


Full Text:

PDF

References


Delgado ILS, Zuquete S, Santos D, Basto AP, Aletao A, Nolasco S. The Apicomplexan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Encyclopedia. 2022; 2: 189-211.

Wana MN, Moklas MAM, Watanabe M, Noedin N, Unyah NZ, Abdullah SA, Alapid AAI, Mustapha T, Basir R, Majid RA. A Review on the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in human and animals reported in Malaysia from 2008-2018. 2020; International Kournal Environmental Research Public Health. 2020; 17(13): 1-23

Milne G, Webster JP, Walker M. Toxoplasma gondii: An Underestimated Threat? Trends in Parasitology, December 2020; 36(12): 959-969

Yostila D, Armen A. Toxoplasmosis Cerebri pada HIV/AIDS. Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas. 2018; 7(4): 96-99

Nasrul, EY. Gambaran Toxoplasma gondii pada feses kucing di Kecamatan Padang Utara Kota Padang (skripsi). Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas. 2015:3.

Puteri ES. Hubungan jenis keganasan dengan kejadian toxoplasmosis pada pasien keganasan yang menjalani kemoterapi di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang. Skripsi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas. 2019.

Al-Malki ES. Toxoplasmosis: stages of the protozoans life cycle and risk assessment in humans and animals for an enhanced awareness and an improved socio-economic status. Saudi Journal of Biological Science. 2021; 28(1): 962-969.

Shapiro K, Bahia-Oliveira L, Dixon B, Dumetre A, de Wit LA, VanWormer E, Villena I. Environmental transmission of Toxoplasma gondii: Oocysts in water, soil and food. Food and Waterborne Parasitology. 2019; 15(e00049): 1-18

Hide G. Role of vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in prevalence of infection. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 2016; 14(3): 335-344.

Aguirre AA, Longcore T, Barbieri M, Dabritz H, Hill D, Klein PN, Lepczyl C, Lilly EL, McLeod R, Milcarsky J, Murphy CE, Su C, WanWormwer E, Yolken R, Sizemore G. The One Helath Approach to Toxoplasmosis: Epidemiology, Control and Prevention Strategies. Ecohelath. 2019; 16(2): 378-390.

Mboera LEG, Kishamawe C, Kimario E, Rumisha SF. Mortality Patterns of Toxoplasmosis and Its Comorbidities in Tanzania: A 10-Year Retrospective Hospital-Based Survey. 2019;7(February):1-7.

Hasan ME, Moumneh MB, Itani S, Hajj RE, Tawk L, Sabban ME, Hajj HE. Comprehensive Overview of Toxoplasma gondii-induced and associated diseases. Pathogens. 2021; 10(11):1-19.

Sullivan WJ, Jeffers V. Mechanisms of Toxoplasma gondii persistence and latency. FEMS Microbiology Review. 2012; 36(3): 717-733

Madireddy S, Rivas Chacon ED, Mangat R. Toxoplasmosis. StatPearls Publishing LLC. Treasure Island. Finland. 2022.

Rahmanian V, Rahmanian K, Jahromi AS, Bokaie S. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii: An umbrella review of updated systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2020; 9(8): 3848-3855

Hökelek M. Toxoplasmosis, drug and disease. Infectious Disease. Medscape. 2020. WebMD LLC.

Wang ZD, Liu HH, Ma ZX, Ma HY, Li ZY, Yang ZB, Zhu XQ, Xu B, Wei F, Liu G. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Immunocompromised Patients: A Systematic Review and. 2017;8(March):1-12.

Smit GSA, Lam T, Vu TLB, Do TD, Speybroeck N, Devleesschauwer B, Padalko E, Roets E, Dorny P. Prenatal diagnosis and prevention of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Northern Vietnam: study protocol. Published online 2017:1-8.

Ayoade F, Joel Chandranesan AS. HIV-1 Associated Toxoplasmosis. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan.

Report C. Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in an AIDS Patient with Normal CD4 Count: A Case Report. 2018;13(2):317-322.

Hosseini SA, Sharif M, Sarvi M, Janbabai G, Keihanian S, Abediankenari S, Gholami S, Amouei A, Javidnia J, Saberi R, Shekarriz R, Daryani A. Toxoplasmosis among cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: A population study based on the serological, molecular and epidemiologival aspects. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medocine and Hygiene. 2021; 115(6): 677-686

Liu L, Wang P, Xu J, Xia C. Acta Tropica Increased risk of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cancer patients: A meta- analysis of current evidence based on case-control study. Acta Trop. 2019;192(December 2018):30-40.

Steele TA. Chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression and reconstitution of immune function.2002;26:411-414.

Kheirandish F, Ezatpour B, Fallahi S, et al. Toxoplasma serology status and risk of miscarriage, a case-control study among women with a history of spontaneous abortion. International Journal Fertil Steril. 2019;13(3):184-189.

Ahmed M, Sood A, Gupta J. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. European Journal of Obstetric & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2022; 255: 44-50.

Polanunu NFA, Wahyuni S, Hamid F. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant mother in Makassar Indonesia. PlosOne. 2021;4: 1-10

Oz HS. Fetomaternal and Pediatric Toxoplasmosis. Journal Pediatric Infectious Disease .2017 Dec;12(4):202-208.

Toxoplasmosis. CDC. 2018. Published online.

Tuda J, Adiani S, Ichikawa-Seki M, Umeda K, Nishikawa Y. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in humans and pigs in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Parasitol Int. 2017;66(5):615-618.

Flegr J, Prandota J, Sovičková M, et al. Toxoplasmosis - A global threat. Correlation of latent toxoplasmosis with specific disease burden in a set of. 88 countries. PLoS One. 2014;9(3)

Retmanasari A, Widartono BS, Wijayanti MA, Artama WT. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Toxoplasmosis in Middle Java, Indonesia. Ecohealth. 2017;14(1):162-170

Vidal JE. HIV-Related Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Revisited: Current Concepts and Controversies of an Old Disease. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care.2019;18:1-20.

Weiss LM, Dubey JP. Toxoplasmosis: A history of clinical observations. International Journal Parasitology. 2009 Jul 1;39(8):895-901.

Hwang S, Cobb DA, Bhadra R, Youngblood B, Khan IA. Blimp-1-mediated CD4 T cell exhaustion causes CD8 T cell dysfunction during chronic toxoplasmosis. J Exp Med. 2016 Aug 22;213(9):1799-818.

Hampton MM. Congenital toxoplasmosis: A review. Neonatal Netw. 2015;34(5):274-278.

Bobić B, Milosavić M, Guzijan G, Djurković-Djaković O. First Report on Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Study in Blood Donors. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2016 Dec;16(12):807-809.

Hassana DS, Hadisaputro S, Achsan M, Sofro U. Toxoplasmosis and Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS Patients in Kariadi Hospital, Semarang. Jurnal Epidemiologi Kesehatan Komunitas. 2021;0(0):213-217.

Moir S, Chun TW, Fauci AS. Pathogenic mechanisms of HIV disease. Annu Rev Pathol.2011;6:223-48.

Pereira-Chioccola VL, Vidal JE, Su C. Toxoplasma gondii infection and cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients. Future Microbiology. 2009 Dec;4(10):1363-79.

Qiao YC, Xu Y, Jiang DX, Wang X, Wang F, Yang J, et all. Epidemiological analyses of regional and age differences of HIV/AIDS prevalence in China, 2004–2016. Internatioanl Journal Infectious Disease. 2019;81:215-220.

Vidal JE, Hernandez A V., Penalva De Oliveira AC, Dauar RF, Barbosa SP, Focaccia R. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV-positive patients in Brazil: Clinical features and predictors of treatment response in the HAART era. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2005;19(10):626-634.

Katabwa JK, Mukuku O, Kabika E, et al. Clinical and prognostic features of cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. 2021;11(3):79-82.

Parlog A, Schlüter D, Dunay IR. Toxoplasma gondii-induced neuronal alterations. Parasite Immunology. 2015 Mar;37(3):159-70.

Marra CM. Central nervous system infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Handbook Clinical Neurology. 2018;152:117-122.

Azovtseva OV, Viktorova EA, Bakulina EG, Shelomov AS, Trofimova TN. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients over 2015-2018 (a case study of Russia). Epidemiology Infection. 2020 May 4;148:e142.

Alvarado-Esquivel C, Pacheco-Vega SJ, Hernández-Tinoco J, Centeno-Tinoco MM, Beristain-García I, Sánchez-Anguiano LF, et al. Miscarriage history and Toxoplasma gondii infection: A cross-sectional study in women in Durango City, Mexico. Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp). 2014 Jun;4(2):117-22.

Vishnevskia-Dai V, Achiron A, Buhbut O, Berar OV, Musika AA, Elyashiv SM, et al. Chorio-retinal toxoplasmosis: treatment outcomes, lesion evolution and long-term follow-up in a single tertiary center. Int Ophthalmol. 2020 Apr;40(4):811-821.

Greigert V, Bittich-Fahmi F, Pfaff AW. Pathophysiology of ocular toxoplasmosis: Facts and open questions. PLoS Neglected Tropical Disease. 2020;14(12):1-18.

Aleixo ALQ do C, Curi ALL, Benchimol EI, Amendoeira MRR. Toxoplasmic Retinochoroiditis: Clinical Characteristics and Visual Outcome in a Prospective Study. PLoS Neglected Tropical Disease. 2016;10(5):1-14.

Mushtaq F, Ahmad A, Qambar F, Ahmad A, Zehra N. Primary Acquired Toxoplasma Retinochoroiditis: Choroidal Neovascular Membrane as an Early Complication. Cureus. 2019;11(2).

Magliyah MSA, Al-Khars WI. Ocular toxoplasmosis related macular traction: A case report and review of the literature. Saudi Journal Ophthalmology. 2019;33(1):84-87.

Sullivan WJ, Jeffers V. Mechanisms of Toxoplasma gondii persistence and latency. FEMS Microbiology Review. 2012;36(3):717 -733

Manuscript A, Therapy A. Update on Opportunistic Infections in the Era of Effective Antiretroviral Therapy Brian. 2015;28(3):501-518.

El-Sayed NM, Ramadan ME, Ramadan ME. Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Chronic Liver Diseases: Evidence of an association. Trop Med Infect Dis. 2016;1(1):1-8.

Gondal B, Aronsohn A. A Systematic Approach to Patients with Jaundice. Semin Intervent Radiol. 2016;33(4):253-258.

Ortiz-Alegría LB, Caballero-Ortega H, Cañedo-Solares I, Rico-Torres CP, Sahagún-Ruiz A, Medina-Escutia ME. Congenital toxoplasmosis: Candidate host immune genes relevant for vertical transmission and pathogenesis. Genes Immun. 2010;11(5):363-373.

Mayashinta DK, Halleyantoro R, Sari IP, Kurniawan A. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Cerebral and Ocular Toxoplasmosis. Journal Tropical Life Science. 2018;8(3):211-216.

Hassana DS, Hadisaputro S, Achsan M, Sofro U. Toxoplasmosis and Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS Patients in Kariadi Hospital, Semarang. Jurnal Epidemiologi Kesehatan Komunitas. 2021;0(0):213-217.

Hampton MM. Congenital toxoplasmosis: A review. Neonatal Netw. 2015;34(5):274-278.

Ali EN, Majeed SZ, Kadhem AA, Alubadi AEM. Prevalence of Toxoplasmosis as Coinfection in Iraqi Patients Infected with Tuberculosis. Biochem Cell Arch. 2019;19(2):3433-3437.

Ellis PK, Martin WJ, Dodd PJ. CD4 count and tuberculosis risk in HIV-positive adults not on ART: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PeerJ. 2017;2017(12).

Desoubeaux G, Cabanne É, Franck-Martel C, Gombert M, Gyan E, Lissandre S, et al. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients with interstitial pneumonia: A single-centre prospective study assessing PCR-based diagnosis. Journal Clinical Pathology. 2016;69(8):726-730.

Rey M-F, Mary C, Sanguinetti D, Ranque S, Bartoli C, L’Ollivier C. Successful Treatment of Pulmonary and Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Associated with Pneumocystis Pneumonia in an HIV Patient. Diseases. 2017;5(4):35.

Zoubi M Al, Zulfiqar B, Kulkarni M. Cerebral toxoplasmosis requiring urgent brain biopsy. IDCases. 2017;9(May):59-61.

Baker TL, Sun M, Semple BD, Tyebji S, Tonkin CJ, Mychasiuk R, Shultz SR. Catastrophic consequences: can the feline parasite Toxoplasma gondii prompt the purrfect neuroinflammatory storm following traumatic




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30596%2Famj.v5i1.9317

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Jurnal Kedokteran Anatomica/ Anatomica Medical Journal (AMJ) 

Fakultas Kedokteran
Universitas Muhammadiyah Sumatera Utara, Indonesia
Kampus 1 Lantai II Laboratorium Anatomi 
Jl. Gedung Arca No 53 Medan-Sumatera Utara, Indonesia.
E-mail: amj_fk@umsu.ac.id || Editorial Contact: 081375150018

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.