MENGUKUR KINERJA PEMASARAN: KAJIAN KONSEPTUAL PERKEMBANGAN TEORI
performance concept and seeks to develop a comprehensive model for measuring
marketing performance. Marketing performance was initially measured in terms of
'efficiency' and sometimes referred to 'productivity' is calculated by comparing the
cost of marketing input to output on the level of sales. This indicator measures how
efficient of marketing programs in the company based on financial measurements.
But we realize that the performance-based marketing with financial indicators
turned out to contain a lot of weaknesses, including short-term perspective, it can
give rise to organizational conflicts of interest between the company and its
employees, and in the long term consciously or not, can obscure the achievement of
the vision and mission including company philosophy. Furthermore, in the 1990s,
many scholars developed a set of indicators to measure marketing performance,
including customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. Both indicators is more
relevant for measuring marketing performance today that allow improvement quality
encourage and products value, service quality and customer relationship techniques.
Even indicators that can not be measured by monetary value be recognized and not
ignored by the company. The next concept that developed was the marketing
performance measurement indicators of brand equity, which measures how
powerfull brand to attract consumers in choosing a product. With the success of this
indicator can be seen positioning and differentiation are expected by the company
toward market to establish the value of the firm.
Developing conceptual model of marketing performance in this paper is
focused on the discussion of marketing performance indicators developed by the
scholars’ disagreements over the concepts that are presented, and finally arranged a
model that describes the comprehensive marketing performance indicators.
Current concepts in the journal which is used as the main reference in this
paper on marketing performance measurement as described above in principle
emphasizes on the development of non-financial indicators consisting of market
share, customer satisfaction, loyalty or customer retention, brand equity, and
innovation in the development can affect the improvement of corporate value (the
value of the firm) as a financial indicator. It is proposed to review the entry point is
the development of non-financial measures will affect the value of the company.
Aaker, D. A. and Jacobson, R. (2001), “The Value Relevance of Brand Attitude in
High-Technology Markets”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 38, No. 4,
Ambler, T. (2000), “Marketing Metrics, Business Strategy Review”, Vol. 11, No. 2,
Ambler, T. and Roberts, J. H. (2008), “Assessing Marketing Performance: Don’t
Settle for a Silver Metric”, Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 24, No.
/8, pp. 733-750.
Ambler, T., Kokkinaki, Flora., and Puntoni, Stefano., (2004), “Assessing Market
Performance: The Current State of Metrics”, London Business School, Centre
for Marketing Working Paper 01-903.
Anderson, E. W. and Sullivan, M. W. (1993), “The Antecedents and Consequences
of Customer Satisfaction for Firms”, Marketing Science, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp.
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