Lansia Sebagai Pekerja Informal Di Maluku: Pengaruh Karakteristik Individu terhadap Kesempatan Kerja

Italia Sandi, Rabina Yunus, Sakaria Anwar


The aging population will become a burden for the society, including countries, especially because of the limitations of the current social security system, requiring the elderly to meet their own needs. However, due to the limited number of jobs that are available and able to be entered by the elderly, the majority of workers are absorbed in the informal sector with vulnerable and low-income types of work. The purpose of this research is to get an overview about the elderly workers characteristics in Maluku and their effect on the type of economic activity they had. The data that used in this study is sourced from Sakernas August 2021 with analytical methods using descriptive analysis and Binary Logistics Regression. Research variables derived from individual characteristics possessed by elderly workers, consisting of gender, type of residence area, education and training participation. The results showed that all variables used in this study had a significant effect on the existence of the elderly who were informal workers. More than half of the elderly population who work in Maluku are men. However, older women are more likely to be informal worker. In addition to those who are female, the elderly who have a bigger chance to becoming informal workers are those who live in rural areas, do not go to school, and have never attended training/courses. The biggest tendency to become elderly as informal workers is owned by the elderly who have never attended training/courses, so to improve the quality of elderly workers to have more decent job can be done by conducting training.


Characteristic, Elderly, Informal, Worker

Full Text:



Adriani, E. (2019). Pengukuran Modal Manusia (Suatu Studi Literatur). Jurnal Manajemen dan Sains, 4(1), 176183.

Agresti, A. (2013). Categorical Data Analysis (3rd Edition). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Affandi, M. (2009). Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Penduduk Lansia memilih bekerja. Journal of Indonesian Applied Economics, Vol. 3, 99110.

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2020). Potret Penduduk Hasil SP2020 Indonesia. BPS RI. Jakarta

_____. (2021). Statistik penduduk lanjut usia 2021. BPS RI. Jakarta

Bairagya, I. (2012). Employment in Indias Informal Sector: size, pattern, growth, and determinants. Journal of the Asia Pasific Economy, 17(4), 593-615.

Bappenas. (2009). Analisis Peran Sektor Informal Sebagai Katup Pengaman Masalah Ketenagakerjaan, Kajian Evaluasi Pembangunan Nasional. Bappenas RI. Jakarta

Becker, G. (2009). Human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis, with special reference to education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bloom, D. E., Canning, D., & Fink, G. (2010). Implications of population ageing for economic growth. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 26(4), 583612.

Bloom, D. E., & Finlay, J. E. (2009). Demographic change and economic growth in Asia. Asian Economic Policy Review, 4(1), 45-64.

Borjas, G. J. (2016). Labor Economics (Seventh). Newyork: The MacGrow-Hill Companies.

Brown, C. (1993). Training, Productivity and Underemployment in Institutional Labour Markets. International Journal of Manpower, 14(2), 47-58.

Djamhari, E. A., Ramdlaningrum, H., Layyinah, A., Chrisnahutama, A., & Prasetya, D. (2020). Kondisi Kesejahteraan Lansia Dan Perlindungan Sosial Lansia Di Indonesia. PRAKARSA. Jakarta

Faiz, A. Z. (2021). Kondisi Tenaga Kerja Pada Sektor Pertanian, Kehutanan Dan Perikanan Tahun 2020 Di Provinsi Jawa Tengah. Jurnal Ketenagakerjaan, 16(2), 138-149.

HelpAge International. (2018). Global AgeWatch Index and Insights. HelpAge International

Heryanah, H. (2015). Ageing Population Dan Bonus Demografi Kedua Di Indonesia. Jurnal Populasi, 23(2), 1-16.

Hosmer, D. W., Lemeshow, S., & Sturdivant, R. X. (2013). Applied Logistic Regression (3rd ed.). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc

Jamallludin. (2020). Pekerja Informal Lansia dan Rasio Daya Dukung Lansia di Indonesia. Jurnal Ecoducation, 2(2), 6175.

Jamalludin. (2021). Keputusan Pekerja Lansia tetap Bekerja Pascapensiun dan Kaitannya dengan Kebahagiaan. Jurnal Samudra Ekonomi Dan Bisnis, 12(1), 89101.

Kemenkes. (2017). Analisis Lansia di indonesia. Kementrian Kesehatan RI. Jakarta

Kadar, K.S., Francis, K., & Sellick, K. (2012). Ageing in Indonesia - Health Status and Challenges for the Future. Ageing International. Vol.38, 261270.

Kidd, S., Gelders, B., Rahayu, S. K., Larasati, D., Huda, K., & Siyaranamual, M. (2018). Perlindungan Sosial bagi Penduduk Lanjut Usia di Indonesia. TNP2K. Jakarta

Kouadio, H., & Gakpa L.L. (2020). Micro-determinants of informal employment in Cte dlvoire: The role of social-demographic factors. Journal of Economics and International Finances, 12(3), 95-104.

Larsen, M & Pederson, P.J. (2013). To work, to retire - or both? Labour Market Activity after 60. IZA Journal of European Labor Studies. 2(21).

Madris. (2021). Statistika: Penerapan Model Regresi dalam Penulisan Karya Ilmiah. Makassar: Nas Media Pustaka

Nilsson, A. (2015). Who suffers from un employment? The role of health and skills. IZA Journal of Labor Policy, 4(19), 24-4.

Pang.L, Brauw, Alan D, & Rozella, Scott. (2004). Working until You Drop: The Elderly of Rural Cina. The Cina Journal, Vol.52, 73-94.

Pardede, Elda Luciana dan Listya, Rahmanina. (2013). Do They Look fo Informal Jobs? Migration of the Working Age in Indonesia. Working Paper in Economics and Business 3(8).

Perry, G. (Ed.). (2017). Informality: Exit and Exclusion. World Bank Publication.

Reddy, A.B. (2016). Labour Force Participation of Elderly in India: Pattern and determinants. International Journal of Social Economics, 43 (5), 502-516.

Sari, R.D. (2016). Pengembangan Model Pelatihan Tenaga Kerja Sektor Informal di Dinas Tenaga Kerja Transmigrasi dan Kependudukan Provinsi Jawa Timur. Jurnal Kebijakan dan Manajemen publik, Vol 4, 107-115.

Simanjuntak, P. J. (2005). Manajemen dan Evaluasi Kinerja. Lembaga Penerbit Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Indonesia. Depok

UN. (2015). World Population Ageing. UN. Newyork

Vodopivec, M., Finn, D., Laporek, S., Vodopivec, M., & Cvrnjek, N. (2019). Increasing Employment of Older Workers: Addressing Labour Market Obstacles. Journal of Population Ageing, 12(3), 273298.